Top  NFHS and NCAA Travel Rule Comparison
(differences are highlighted, also see nfhs and ncaa travel cases)
NBA/WNBA Travel Rules
FIBA Travel Rules
National Federation of High Schools (NFHS)   National Collegiate Athletic Association
    Rule 4/Definitions, Section 50. Pivot
    A pivot takes place when a player who is holding the ball steps once or more than once in any direction with the same foot, while the other foot, called the pivot foot, is kept at its point of contact with the playing court.

Rule 4: Definitions, Section 44: Traveling   Rule 4/Definitions, Section 68: Traveling
Traveling (running with the ball) is moving a foot or feet in any direction in excess of prescribed limits while holding the ball. The limits on foot movements are as follows:
  Art. 1. Traveling occurs when a player holding the ball moves a foot or both feet in any direction in excess of prescribed limits described in this rule.

ART. 1 . . . A player who catches the ball with both feet on the floor, may pivot, using either foot. When one foot is lifted, the other is the pivot foot.

  Art. 2. A player who catches the ball with both feet on the playing court may pivot, using either foot. When one foot is lifted, the other is the pivot foot.

ART. 2 . . . A player, who catches the ball while moving or dribbling, may stop, and establish a pivot foot as follows:
  1. If both feet are off the floor and the player lands:
    1. Simultaneously on both feet, either foot may be the pivot.
    2. On one foot followed by the other, the first foot to touch is the pivot.

    3. On one foot, the player may jump off that foot and simultaneously land on both. Neither foot can be a pivot in this case.

  2. If one foot is on the floor:
    1. It is the pivot when the other foot touches in a step.
    2. The player may jump off that foot and simultaneously land on both. Neither foot can be a pivot in this case.
  Art. 3. A player who catches the ball while moving or dribbling may stop and establish a pivot foot as follows:
  1. When both feet are off the playing court and the player lands:
    1. Simultaneously on both feet, either may be the pivot foot;
    2. On one foot followed by the other, the first foot to touch shall be the pivot foot;
    3. On one foot, the player may jump off that foot and simultaneously land on both; neither foot can be the pivot foot.

  2. When one foot is on the playing court:
    1. That foot shall be the pivot foot when the other foot touches in a step;
    2. The player may jump off that foot and simultaneously land on both; neither foot can then be the pivot foot.
ART. 3 . . . After coming to a stop and establishing a pivot foot:
  1. The pivot foot may be lifted, but not returned to the floor, before the ball is released on a pass or try for goal.
  2. If the player jumps, neither foot may be returned to the floor before the ball is released on a pass or try for goal.
  3. The pivot foot may not be lifted before the ball is released, to start a dribble.
  Art. 4. After coming to a stop and establishing the pivot foot:
  1. The pivot foot may be lifted, but not returned to the playing court, before the ball is released on a pass or try for goal;


  2. The pivot foot shall not be lifted before the ball is released to start a dribble.
ART. 4 . . . After coming to a stop when neither foot can be a pivot:
  1. One or both feet may be lifted, but may not be returned to the floor before the ball is released on a pass or try for goal.
  2. Neither foot may be lifted before the ball is released, to start a dribble.
  Art. 5. After coming to a stop when neither foot can be the pivot foot:
  1. One or both feet may be lifted, but may not be returned to the playing court, before the ball is released on a pass or try for goal;
  2. Neither foot shall be lifted, before the ball is released, to start a dribble.
ART. 5 . . . A player holding the ball:
  1. May not touch the floor with a knee or any other part of the body other than hand or foot.
  2. After gaining control while on the floor and touching with other than hand or foot, may not attempt to get up or stand.


  Art. 6. It is traveling when a player falls to the playing court while holding the ball without maintaining a pivot foot.
Rule 9: Violations and Penalties
Section 4 Travel, Kick, Fist, Ball Enters Basket From Below
  Rule 9: Violations and Penalties
Section 6. Travel, Kick, Fist, Through Basket from Below
A player shall not travel with the ball, as in 4-44, intentionally kick it, as in 4- 29, strike it with the fist or cause it to enter and pass through the basket from below.
  A player shall not travel or run with the ball, intentionally kick it, strike it with the fist or cause it to pass through the basket and enter the cylinder from below.
NOTE: Kicking the ball is a violation only when it is an intentional act; accidentally striking the ball with the foot or leg is not a violation.
PENALTY: The ball is dead when the violation occurs and is awarded to the opponents for a throw-in from the designated out-of-bounds spot nearest the violation.
   

Top  NBA and WNBA Travel Rule Comparison
(differences are highlighted, also see nba travel cases)
NFHS/NCAA Travel Rules
FIBA Travel Rules
Prior to the 2009-10 season, the NBA modified the wording of the travel rule to provide clarification in accordance with established practice. The prior wording stated that a player "may use a two-count rhythm in coming to a stop, passing or shooting the ball." The new wording replaces "use a two-count rhythm" with "take two steps". The full 2009-2010 rules content has not been publicly released. The 2008-2009 content is included below.
National Basketball Association (NBA)   Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA
Rule No. 4--Definitions, Section VIII--Pivot   Rule No. 4: Definitions, Section VIII-Pivot
  1. A pivot takes place when a player, who is holding the ball, steps once or more than once in any direction with the same foot, with the other foot (pivot foot) in contact with the floor.

  2. If the player wishes to dribble after a pivot, the ball must be out of his hand before the pivot foot is raised off the floor. If the player raises his pivot off the floor, he must pass or attempt a field goal before the foot is returned to the floor. If he fails to follow these guidelines, he has committed a traveling violation.
 
  1. A pivot takes place when a player, who is holding the ball, steps once or more than once in any direction with the same foot, with the other foot (pivot foot) in contact with the floor.

  2. If the player wishes to dribble after a pivot, the ball must be out of her hand before the pivot foot is raised off the floor.
  3. If the player raises her pivot off the floor, she must pass or attempt a field goal. If she fails to follow these guidelines, she has committed a traveling violation.
RULE NO. 4--Definitions, Section IX--Traveling   Rule No. 4: Definitions and Penalties, , Section IX-Traveling
Traveling is progressing in any direction while in possession of the ball, which is in excess of prescribed limits as noted in Rule 4--Section VIII and Rule 10--Section XIII.   Traveling is progressing in any direction while in possession of the ball, which is in excess of prescribed limits as noted in Rule 4--Section VIII and Rule 10--Section XIV.
RULE NO. 10--Violations and Penalties, Section XIII--Traveling   Rule No. 10: Violations and Penalties, Section XIV-Traveling
         a. A player who receives the ball while standing still may pivot, using either foot as the pivot foot.
         b. A player who receives the ball while he is progressing or upon completion of a dribble, may use a two-count rhythm in coming to a stop, passing or shooting the ball. A player who receives the ball while he is progressing may use a two-count rhythm to start his dribble.
    The first count occurs:
  •    (1) As he receives the ball, if either foot is touching the floor at the time he receives it.
  •    (2)As the foot touches the floor, or as both feet touch the floor simultaneously after he receives the ball, if both feet are off the floor when he receives it.
    The second occurs:
  •    (1) After the count of one when either foot touches the floor, or both feet touch the floor simultaneously.

         A player who comes to a stop on the count of one when both feet are on the floor or touch the floor simultaneously, may pivot using either foot as the pivot. If he alights with both feet he must release the ball before either foot touches the floor.

   A player who has one foot on the floor or lands with one foot first to the floor, may only pivot with that foot. Once that foot is lifted from the floor it may not return until the ball is released.

         A player who jumps off one foot on the count of one may land with both feet simultaneously for count two. In this situation, the player may not pivot with either foot and if one or both feet leave the floor the ball must be released before either returns to the floor.

         In starting a dribble after (1) receiving the ball while standing still, or (2) coming to a legal stop, the ball must be out of the player’s hand before the pivot foot is raised off the floor.


         If a player, with the ball in his possession, raises his pivot foot off the floor, he must pass or shoot before his pivot foot returns to the floor. If he drops the ball while in the air, he may not be the first to touch the ball.

         A player who falls to the floor while holding the ball, or while coming to a stop, may not gain an advantage by sliding.

         A player who attempts a field goal may not be the first to touch the ball if it fails to touch the backboard, basket ring or another player.
         A player may not be the first to touch his own pass unless the ball touches his backboard, basket ring or another player.

         Upon ending his dribble or gaining control of the ball, a player may not touch the floor consecutively with the same foot (hop).

PENALTY: Loss of ball. The ball is awarded to the opposing team at the sideline, nearest spot of the violation but no nearer the baseline than the foul line extended.
  a. A player who receives the ball while standing still may pivot, using either foot as the pivot foot.

b. A player who receives the ball while she is progressing or upon completion of a dribble, may use a two-count rhythm in coming to a stop, passing or shooting the ball.
 

The first count occurs:
(1) As she receives the ball, if either foot is touching the floor at the time she receives it.
(2) As the foot touches the floor, or as both feet touch the floor simultaneously after she receives the ball, if both feet are off the floor when she receives it.
 
 
The second occurs:
(1) After the count of one when either foot touches the floor, or both feet touch the floor simultaneously.

 
c. A player who comes to a stop on the count of one may pivot, using either foot as the pivot foot.


d. A player who comes to a stop on the count of two, with one foot in advance of the other, may pivot using only the rear foot as the pivot foot.


e. A player who comes to a stop on the count of two, with neither foot in advance of the other, may use either foot as the pivot foot.




f. In starting a dribble after
(1) receiving the ball while standing still, or
(2) coming to a legal stop, the ball must be out of the player’s hand before the pivot foot is raised off the floor.

g. If a player, with the ball in her possession, raises her pivot foot off the floor, she must pass or shoot before her pivot foot returns to the floor. If she drops the ball while in the air, she may not be the first to touch the ball.

h. A player who falls to the floor while holding the ball, or while coming to a stop, may not make progress by sliding.

i. A player who attempts a field goal may not be the first to touch the ball if it fails to touch the backboard, basket ring or another player.






PENALTY: Loss of ball. The ball is awarded to the opposing team at the sideline, nearest spot of the violation.

Top  Fédération Internationale de Basketball Amateur (FIBA) Traveling Rule
(also see fiba travel cases)
NFHS/NCAA Travel Rules
NBA/WNBA Travel Rules
Art. 25   Traveling
25.1   Definition
25.1.1   Traveling is the illegal movement of one foot or both feet beyond the limits outlined in this article, in any direction, while holding a live ball on the playing court.
25.1.2   A pivot is the legal movement in which a player who is holding a live ball on the playing court steps once or more than once in any direction with the same foot, while the other foot, called the pivot foot, is kept at its point of contact with the floor.
25.2   Rule
25.2.1   Establishing a pivot foot for a player who catches a live ball on the playing court:
  • While standing with both feet on the floor:
    • The moment one foot is lifted, the other foot becomes the pivot foot.
  • While moving:
    • If one foot is touching the floor, that foot becomes the pivot foot.
    • If both feet are off the floor and the player lands on both feet simultaneously,the moment one foot is lifted, the other foot becomes the pivot foot.
    • If both feet are off the floor and the player lands on both feet simultaneously, the moment one foot is lifted, the other foot becomes the pivot foot.
25.2.2   Progressing with the ball for a player who has established a pivot foot while having the control of a live ball on the playing court:
  • While standing with both feet on the floor:
    • To start a dribble, the pivot foot may not be lifted before the ball is released from the hand(s).
    • To pass or shoot for a field goal, the player may jump off a pivot foot, but neither foot may be returned to the floor before the ball is released from the hand(s).
  • While moving:
    • To pass or shoot for a field goal, the player may jump off a pivot foot and land on one foot or both feet simultaneously. After that, one foot or both feet may be lifted from the floor but neither foot may be returned to the floor before the ball is released from the hand(s).
    • To start a dribble, the pivot foot may not be lifted before the ball is released from the hand(s).
  • While coming to a stop when neither foot is the pivot foot:
    • To start a dribble, neither foot may be lifted before the ball is released from the hand(s).
    • To pass or shoot for a field goal, one foot or both feet may be lifted but may not be returned to the floor before the ball is released from the hand(s).
25.2.3   Player falling, lying or sitting on the floor:
  • It is legal when a player falls and slides on the floor while holding the ball or, while lying or sitting on the floor, gains control of the ball.
  • It is a violation if the player then rolls or attempts to stand up while holding the ball.